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  1. Shadda in Arabic
  2. Shadda rules
  3. Shadda examples
  4. Reading practice

Shadda in Arabic

The Shadda symbol resembles the English letter W in shape, i.e. ـّ.
Shadda squeezes adjacent double letters into single. For example, the word Shadda itself has double d, Shadda.
In Arabic, it has double dal (د) i.e. شَدْدَةٌ‎, but instead of writing the letter dal (د) two times, the Arabs squeeze it into one letter with the help of Shadda symbol. So, the correct way of writing the word Shadda in Arabic is:

Of course, here we are not pronouncing tanween ( ـٌ ) on the letter ta marboota ( ة ). Please see the previous lesson (Tanween in Arabic) for details.

Shadda is also know as Tashdid تَشْدِيْدٌ.

Shadda rules

There are two conditions for adjacent double letters to be combined with the Shadda symbol.

  1. The first letter must have the Sukoon ( ـْ ) symbol on it. In other words, the first letter must be sakin سَاكِنْ.
  2. The second letter to combine under Shadda must have a vowel, any vowel,
    a short ( ـَ ـِ ـُ ),
    a double ( ـً ـٍ ـٌ ),
    or a long one ( ـَ ا ، ـِ ي ، ـُ و ).

In short, we can write, Sakin + vowel = Shadda

ـْ + ـَ ⇜ ـّ
ساكن + حركة = شدة

Whenever two consecutive letters in a word fulfill the above two conditions, they are combined with Shadda.

Like the letter that has sukoon symbol is called sakin ( سَاكِنْ ), the letter with shadda or tashdid is called mushadad ( مُشَدَّدْ) .

Shadda examples

مَكْكَة ⇜ مَكَّة
نَجْجَار ⇜ نَجَّار
جَيْيِد ⇜ جَيِّد

We see the letter with the vowel kasra+shadda has the kasra symbol above it, i.e. جَيِّد
Such letters, which have shadda+kasra can have the following three variations. All three are correct, but you should stick with one while writing.

  1. Both shadda and kasra can be written above the letter, like in the example above ( جَيِّد ). However, kasra remains below the shadda symbol, indicating that it is kasra.
  2. Both shadda and kasra can also be written below the letter.
  3. Shadda symbol can be written above the letter and kasra remians below the letter.

Now we have completed all the symbols that control the sound of an Arabic word. What only needed is practice and more practice to be fluent in reading Arabic.

Reading practice


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